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Table 1 Epidemiological Characteristics of Reviewed Outbreaks

From: Measles vaccination in humanitarian emergencies: a review of recent practice

Region/

CountryREF

Flash/CAP/Years

Dates of Outbreak

Scope of outbreak (size)

Reported

Cases

Age of

Cases

Incidence per 100,000

Vaccination Coverage of Population

Vaccination Status of Cases

AMERICAS

        

Bolivia [9]

2004, 2007, 2008

1998-2000

Nationwide

(8 million)

2567

55% < 5 y

≈18% 5-14 y

32

1995-1997 < 90%

N/A

Haiti [10]

2003, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2010

3/00-9/01

Nationwide

(6.8 million)

1149

N/A

14.1

1995-1999:

47% in 1 y olds

N/A

Colombia [11]

2003

1-7/02

10/33 departments

68

65% 1-4 y

5.5

80% < 1 y (2000)

91% < 1 y (2001)

N/A

Colombia [12]

 

2-3/02

3 departments (subset of Colombia o/b above)

9

55% < 5 y

45% 5-15 y

N/A

66-127% in affected municipalities

N/A

ASIA

        

Afghanistan [15]

1999-2003

2006-2010

2001

Nationwide

8762

62% 0-4 y

29% 5-9 y

9% > 10 y

N/A

62-90%

N/A

Afghanistan [16]

 

2000

7 of 30 provinces

thousands

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Afghanistan [17]

 

2001

Nationwide (362 sentinel sites, 12.5 million 6 m-12 y)

8762

62% 0-4 y

33% 5-12 y

70 (for 6 m - 12 y)

40-47%

N/A

India [13]

2005 (Indian Ocean)

Aug 08 to Mar 09

Rural

(362072, 148540 children < 15 y)

1811

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

India [14]

2005 (Indian Ocean)

Dec 04-Jan 05

Coastal area (87284 - 8803 < 5 y)

30 in non-affected villages

71 in tsunami affected villages

(non-affected)

36.7% < 5 y

5 y < = 60% < 15 y

3.3% > = 15 y

(affected)

43.7% < 5 y

5 y < = 56.3% < 15 y

0% > 15 y

1.7 in non-affected

1.3 in affected

Estimated: 95%

3%

Sri Lanka [19]

2002, 2003, 2006-2008

10/99 - 6/00

Nationwide

(19 million)

15250 suspected

4611 confirmed

15% < 5 y

32% 5-14 y

24

(4611/19 M)

90%

40%

(of 3728 evaluated)

Laos [20, 1]

2009

3/1999 - 3/2000

Nationwide (5 million); 4 villages subset (2871)

2634 nationally, 185 in 4 villages

57% > 5 y

40% 5-13 y

(subsample of 185 in 4 villages)

53 (nationally)

6443 (4 village subset)

68% on avg in previous 4 y

35%

(subsample of 185 in 4 villages)

VE = 68%

AFRICA

        

Niger [21]

2005

2003 Nationally, 1/1 - 15/4 in Mirriah District

Nationwide (12.5 million); Mirrah district (677,885)

50138 Nationally, 8817 Mirriah district

75% < 5 y

20% 5-14 y

400 Nationwide

1300 in Mirriah district

25-91% in past decade

12.3%

Kenya [28, 1, 2]

2001, 2006, 2008

7-11/1998

2 hospitals

1000

75% > 4 y

N/A

70-93%

39%

(VE = 84%)

Tanzania [24]

1999-2001 Refugees from Burundi

3-5/2001

4 refugee camps in Kibondo District (170500)

1062

21% < 9 m

27% 9 m-5 y

31% 6-15 y

623

95%

82% 9 m-5 y

27% 6-15 y

Ethiopia [25]

2000-3, 2006-7

1-7/2000

Gode District, Ethiopia

N/A

N/A

N/A

57% (in 9-36 m)

3% (9-36 m)

Mozambique

[29, 1, 3]

2000, 2001, 2003, 2007

Multiple 1998-2001

Nationwide (16 million)

Not clear, about 35-40,000

Varied greatly

30-85% 0-59 m

N/A

67-100%

N/A

Niger [2123]

2005

2003-2004

Niamey (surveyed = 26795)

1024

82% < 5 y

3.5% > 15 y

N/A

70.9%

37.3%

Chad [23]

2004-2010

2004-2005

Ndjamena(surveyed = 21812)

745

70% < 5 y

4.4% > 15 y

N/A

33%

70%

South Africa [30, 1, 2, 4]

2003, 2008

July 03-may 05

Johannesburg and rural (Oliver Tambo District)

349 in J'burg

302 in Tambo

J'burg:

80% < 5 y

5 y < = 15% < 15 y

3% > = 15 y

Tambo:

41% < 5 y

5 y < = 49% < 15 y

8% > = 15 y

N/A

J'burg: Adm Cov 102%

Tambo: Adm Cov: 90%

J'burg: 47.4%

Tambo: 29.7%

Tanzania [31]

1999, 2001

July 06-Jan 07

Dar-Es-Salaam (2.5 M - 880000 < 14 y)

1533

Before response:

8% < 6 m

6 m = < 60% < 15 y

32% > = 15 y

29.3

84%

N/A

Sudan [26, 27]

1998-2008

Mar to Jun 04

Darfur Region 2607082

Accessible 2170985

3 o/b:

(West Darfur)01/03 to 27/04: 48 cases

(North Darfur)27/03 to 16/06: 521

(West Darfur)01/04 to 03/06: 142

58% < 5 y

N/A

N/A

N/A

EUROPE

        

Albania [32]

1999

04/99-06/99

442000 refugees from Kosovo

80

43% > = 15 y

N/A

 

unknown

  1. *Abbreviations contained in the body of the table: N/A = not available, o/b = outbreak, w = week, m = month and y = year VE = reported vaccine effectiveness