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Table 2 Main health indicators at the beginning (1996) and end of the conflict (2006)

From: Understanding effects of armed conflict on health outcomes: the case of Nepal

MDG Goal Health Indicators*,** 1996 (NFHS) 2006 (NDHS) Difference OR 95% CI NHRC 2006 MDG Target 2015
      Lower Upper   
GOAL1
Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger
1. Percent of stunted children under 3 (height/age) 56 42 14 1.756 1.003 3.077 Na 30
  2. Percentage of undernourished children under 3 wasting (wt/height) 11 15 -4 0.700 0.3.45 1.6109 Na 25
  3. Underweight children under 3 (weight for age) 42 35 7 1.344 0.759 2.381 Na 29
GOAL 4
Reduce child mortality
4.Neonatal mortality rate/1,000 live births 50 33 17 2.030 1.145 3.598 Na 16
  5.Infant mortality rate/1,000 live births 79 48 31 3.915 2.108 7.283 Na 34
  6.Under 5 child mortality rate/1,000 live births 118 61 57 2.059 1.491 2.843 Na 54
Intermediate Indicator 7. DPT 3 immunisation coverage % 76 87 11 0.472 0.225 0.993 93 100
  8. Measles vaccine coverage % 57 85 28 0.233 0.118 0.460 91 90
GOAL 5
Improve maternal health
9.Maternal mortality ratio/100,000 live births 539 281 258 2.991 2.484 3.602 Na 134
  10. Total fertility rate 4.6 3.1 1.5 1.333 0.298 5.959 Na 2.4
Intermediate Indicator 11.Current use of any modern method of contraception among currently married women 15-49 years % 26 51 25 0.355 0.196 0.641 53 67
  12. ANC visit % 26 75 49 0.276 0.152 0.501 68 NI
  13.TT shots during pregnancy(2 or more) % 33 63 30 0.289 0.161 0.517 81 NI
  14.Delivery attended by skilled personnel % 10 19 9 0.473 0.208 0.078 43 60
GOAL 6
Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases
15.Tuberculosis prevalence rate/100,000 population 310҂ 280 30 1.107 0.942 1.302 Na Halt and reverse
  16.Malaria prevalence rate/100,000 population 52҂ 25 25 2.080 1.291 3.352 Na Halt and reverse
  17.Prevalence of HIV in age group 15-49 Na 0.5 - - - - Na Halt and reverse
GOAL 7
Ensure environmental sustainability
18.Access to drinking water(improved source) 33 82 49 0.108 0.055 0.208 Na 68*
  19. Access to sanitation % 20 42 22 0.412 0.223 0.760 Na 53
  1. Note: Na = Not available, NI = Not included, OR = Odds Ratio, CI = Confidence Interval
  2. ҂ = The figures are for 2000 as no data was available for 1996
  3. ҂҂ = Universal access target is 100%
  4. * Indicators 1-3 and 18 and 19 are based on household questionnaire data,** Indicators 4-14 and 17 are based on women questionnaire data,
  5. ** Indicators 15 and 16 are based on MOHP data presented in a national MDG workshop in Kathmandu on February 10, 2010.