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Table 4 Variables of lifetime exposure to organised crime, political violence and human rights violations, n = 1115.

From: Survivors of the war in the Northern Kosovo: violence exposure, risk factors and public health effects of an ethnic conflict

Socio-demographic data Variables House search by law enforcement agency House burned deliberately by police, army or paramilitary or NATO
No/Yes OR (95%CI) P value No/Yes OR (95%CI) P value
Municipalities Mitrovicë 126/302 1 214/214 1
  Skënderaj 37/230 2.59 (0.79-8.47) P = 0.11 35/232 6.63 (3.05-14.40) P < 0.001
  Vushtrri 126/294 0.97 (0.54-1.76) P = 1.93 286/184 0.88 (0.27-2.25) P = 0.64
Ethnicity Albanian 251/810 1 450/617 1
  Serb 23/10 0.14 (0.07-0.27) P < 0.001 27/6 0.16 (0.49-0.56) P < 0.005
  Bosniak 5/1 0.06 (0.04-0.09) P < 0.001 3/3 0.73 (0.42-1.26) P = 0.26
  Turk 4/5 0.40 (0.22-0.70) P < 0.001 5/4 0.58 (0.23-1.45) P = 0.25
Residential areas Urban areas 154/318 1 188/284 1
  Peri-urban 32/86 1.30 (0.72-2.34) P = 0.38 69/49 0.47 (0.23-0.96) P < 0.05
  Village 103/422 1.98 (1.05-3.75) P < 0.05 228/297 0.86 (0.27-2.72) P = 0.80
Social participation and interpersonal relationship No involvement 274/723 1 447/550 1
  Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK) 4/17 1.61 (032-8.14) P = 0.57 13/8 0.50 (0.122-2.04) P = 0.37
  Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK) 3/60 7.58 (3.32-17.31) P < 0.001 9/54 4.88 (1.81-13.17) P < 0.005
  Other political party in Serbia 4/17 1.61 (0.50-5.21) P = 0.426 8/13 1.32 (0.65-2.70) P = 0.45
  No involvement 136/326 1 201/261 1
  Family member has participated in a demonstration, a strike, or a human rights rally 153/500 1.36 (0.95-1.97) P = 0.10 284/369 1.00 (0.77-1.31) P = 1.00
  No involvement 270/731 1 443/558 1
  Family member has personal financial or political conflict with families of other ethnicities 19/95 1.85 (1.18-2.89) P < 0.01 42/72 1.36 (0.74-2.49) P = 0.32
  No involvement 233/597 1 388/443 1
  Family member worked with Kosovo Liberation Army or militia before or during the war in 1999 56/229 1.60 (1.19-2.15) P < 0.005 97/188 1.70 (1.09-2.67) P < 0.05
  No involvement 281/785   458/608 1
  Family member or friends work with a law enforcement agency before or during the war 8/41 1.83 (0.64-5.24) P = 0.26 27/22 0.61 (0.35-1.06) P = 0.08
Municipalities Mitrovicë 375/53 1 397/31 1
  Skënderaj 236/31 0.93 (0.54-1.60) P = 0.79 244/23 1.21 (0.93-1.57) P = 0.17
  Vushtrri 389/31 0.56 (0.32-0.99) P < 0.05 407/13 0.41 (0.23-0.74) P < 0.005
Ethnicity Albanian 954/112 1 1101/66 1
  Serb 32/1 0.26 (0.07-3.32) P = 0.231 32/1 0.47 (0.07-3.32) P = 0.45
  Bosnian 6/0 0 6/0 0
  Turk 8/1 1.06 (0.40-2.77) P = 0.91 9/0 0
Residential areas Urban areas 431/41 1 440/32 1
  Peri-urban 108/10 0.97 (0.42-2.26) P = 0.95 112/6 0.74 (0.25-2.20) P = 0.58
  Village 461/64 1.46 (0.83-2.56) P = 0.19 496/29 0.80 (0.44-1.48) P = 0.48
Social participation and interpersonal relationship No involvement 899/98 1 936/61 1
  Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK) 18/3 1.53 (0.61-3.84) P = 0.37 20/1 0.77 (0.09-6.40) P = 0.81
  Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK) 51/12 2.16 (1.17-3.97) P < 0.01 59/4 1.04 (0.35-3.06) P = 0.94
  Other political party in Serbia 19/2 0.97 (0.19-4.93) P = 0.97 20/1 0.77 (0.09-6.77) P = 0.81
  No involvement 435/27 1 445/17 -
  Family member has participated in a demonstration, a strike, or a human rights rally 565/88 2.51 (1.29-4.89) P < 0.005 603/50 2.17 (1.42-3.32) P < 0.001
  No involvement 904/97 1 944/57  
  Family member has personal financial or political conflict with families of other ethnicities 96/18 1.75 (1.10-2.79) P < 0.05 104/10 1.59 (0.58-4.37) P = 0.37
  No involvement 766/64 1 788/42 1
  Family member worked with Kosovo Liberation Army or militia before or during the war 234/51 2.61 (1.91-3.56) P < 0.001 260/25 1.80 (1.03-3.15) P < 0.05
  No involvement 958/108 1 1001/65 1
  Family member or friends work with a law enforcement agency before or during the war 42/7 1.48 (0.59-3.73) P = 0.41 47/2 0.66 (0.23-1.88) P = 0.43
Municipalities Mitrovicë 331/97 1 274/154 1
  Skënderaj 217/50 0.79 (0.52-1.18) P = 0.24 168/99 1.05 (0.83-1.33) P = 0.70
  Vushtrri 373/47 0.43 (0.26-0.70) P < 0.001 326/94 0.51 (0.35-0.75) P < 0.001
Ethnicity Albanian 875/192 1 724/343 1
  Serb 32/1 0.14 (0.02-1.34) P = 0.09 30/3 0.21 (0.06-0.78) P < 0.05
  Bosnian 6/0 0 6/0 0
  Turk 8/1 0.57 (0.24-1.38) P = 0.2 8/1 0.26 (0.11-0.63) P < 0.005
Residential areas Urban areas 394/78 1 321/151 1
  Peri-urban 89/29 1.65 (1.06-2.56) P < 0.05 78/40 1.09 (0.63-1.90) P = 0.76
  Village 438/87 1.00 (0.55-1.82) P = 0.99 369/156 0.90 (0.52-1.54) P = 0.70
Social participation and interpersonal relationship No involvement 830/167 1 696/301 1
  Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK) 17/4 1.17 (0.51-2.71) P = 0.72 15/6 0.92 (0.34-2.53) P = 0.88
  Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK) 44/19 2.15 (1.24-3.71) P < 0.01 34/29 1.97 (1.03-3.79) P < 0.05
  Other political party in Serbia 18/3 0.83 (0.19-3.61) P = 0.80 12/9 1.73 (0.80-3.77) P = 1.64
  No involvement 419/43 1 366/96 1
  Family member has participated in a demonstration, a strike, or a human rights rally 502/151 2.93 (2.14-4.02) P < 0.001 402/231 1.57 (1.53-3.30) P < 0.001
  No involvement 840/161 1 709/292 1
  Family member has personal financial or political conflict with families of other ethnicities 81/33 2.13 (1.43-3.16) P < 0.001 59/55 2.26 (1.71-2.99) P < 0.001
  No involvement 709/121 1 593/237 1
  Family member worked with Kosovo Liberation Army or militia before or during the war in 1999 212/73 2.02 (1.31-3.10) P < 0.001 175/110 1.57 (1.14-2.18) P < 0.01
  No involvements 887/179 1 738/328 1
  Family member or friends work with a law enforcement agency before or during the war 34/15 2.19 (1.19-4.01) P < 0.05 30/19 1.43 (0.79-2.58) P = 0.24
  1. Generalised linear model adjusted for the cluster effect of village
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