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Table 1 Means of important indicators across national and gender groups (Standard Deviation in brackets)

From: Trauma, poverty and mental health among Somali and Rwandese refugees living in an African refugee settlement – an epidemiological study

Key Indicators Camp Men Women Somali Rwandese Somali Men Somali Women Rwandese Men Rwandese Women
No. of Events
(Lifetime)
9.98
(5.68)
11
(5.54)
9.17
(5.66)
11.95
(6.17)
8.86
(5.05)
11.75
(5.97)
12.16
(6.38)
10.47
(5.16)
7.77
(4.67)
No. of recent Events 0.29
(1.27)
0.3
(0.99)
0.29
(1.45)
0.45
(1.93)
0.2
(0.63)
0.38
(1.3)
0.53
(2.42)
0.23
(0.71)
0.17
(0.58)
PDS Sum Score 14.1
(13.54)
14.77
(13.33)
13.53
(13.69)
21.17
(16.19)
10.05
(9.7)
19.81
(15.82)
22.58
(16.48)
11.17
(9.77)
9.28
(9.58)
Arousal symptoms 3.76
(4.2)
3.77
(4.03)
3.75
(4.34)
5.73
(5.23)
2.63
(2.95)
5.19
(4.89)
6.28
(5.52)
2.75
(2.89)
2.56
(2.99)
Intrusion symptoms 5.0
(4.85)
5.22
(4.9)
4.83
(4.81)
7.19
(5.98)
3.76
(3.51)
6.71
(6.06)
7.7
(5.89)
4.15
(3.51)
3.49
(3.49)
Avoidance symptoms 5.32
(5.61)
5.78
(5.72)
4.95
(5.5)
8.25
(6.46)
3.66
(4.25)
7.91
(6.62)
8.6
(6.28)
4.27
(4.42)
3.23
(4.09)
Active Avoidance 2.79
(2.82)
2.97
(2.79)
2.65
(2.83)
4.46
(2.95)
1.84
(2.24)
4.27
(2.93)
4.65
(2.97)
2.05
(2.27)
1.7
(2.21)
Passive Avoidance 2.53
(3.35)
2.81
(3.54)
2.3
(3.16)
3.8
(4.28)
1.81
(2.39)
3.65
(4.47)
3.95
(4.08)
2.22
(2.54)
1.53
(2.24)
Anxiety 0.75
(0.74)
0.72
(0.70)
0.78
(0.77)
0.95
(0.91)
0.64
(0.59)
0.81
(0.82)
1.09
(0.98)
0.65
(0.58)
0.63
(0.59)
Depression 0.77
(0.81)
0.81
(0.81)
0.73
(0.81)
1.33
(1.01)
0.44
(0.42)
1.25
(0.98)
1.40
(1.03)
0.49
(0.44)
0.42
(0.41)
Meals 1.43
(0.53)
1.39
(0.51)
1.46
(0.54)
1.06
(0.34)
1.64
(0.5)
1.10
(0.38)
1.02
(0.29)
1.60
(0.49)
1.67
(0.5)
Health complaints sum score 4.35
(2.54)
4.18
(2.57)
4.48
(2.52)
4.22
(2.77)
4.42
(2.41)
4.05
(2.65)
4.41
(2.87)
4.28
(2.50)
4.5
(2.34)
Functioning Deficits 2.07
(2.26)
2.44
(2.36)
1.81
(2.16)
2.45
(3.14)
2.02
(2.09)
2.23
(3.01)
2.71
(3.31)
2.48
(2.21)
1.71
(1.97)
Drug sum score 0.74
(3.25)
1.33
(4.65)
0.27
(1.22)
0.27
(1.57)
0.99
(3.87)
0.53
(2.18)
0.004
(0.06)
1.89
(5.72)
0.4
(1.46)
Household size 5.39
(3.27)
5.05
(3.26)
5.66
(3.25)
6.68
(3.76)
4.65
(2.69)
6.19
(3.44)
7.19
(3.99)
4.23
(2.85)
4.93
(2.53)
Years spent in camp 3.88
(2.64)
4.12
(2.67)
3.69
(2.60)
5.7
(2.03)
2.85
(2.38)
5.74
(2.14)
5.65
(1.91)
2.96
(2.39)
2.78
(2.37)
Education 3.82
(3.83)
4.92
(4.18)
2.95
(3.28)
5.04
(4.49)
3.13
(3.20)
6.83
(4.45)
3.2
(3.73)
3.57
(3.38)
2.84
(3.04)
Asset value
($)
9.99
(12.1)
11.59
$(14)
8.73
(10.15)
(10.21)
(12.24)
9.87
(12.0)
11.04
(12.5)
9.36
(11.9)
11.98
(15.0)
8.43
(9.20)
Age 31.65
(12.7)
32.46
(13.1)
31.00
(12.4)
29.55
(12.3)
32.84
(12.8)
28.89
(11.2)
30.22
(13.4)
34.98
(13.8
31.37
(11.9)
Sexual Events 0.79
(1.34)
0.43
(0.92)
0.95
(1.47)
1.29
(1.87)
0.64
(1.11)
0.00
(0.00)
1.36
(1.88)
0.45
(0.94)
0.77
(1.19)
Violent Events 6.23
(3.25)
6.69
(3.12)
5.84
(3.27)
6.93
(3.31)
5.83
(3.12)
6.99
(3.16)
6.89
(3.54)
6.52
(3.01)
5.36
(3.05)