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Table 3 Factors associated with HIV-1 infection among the 3051 antenatal clinic attendees in Gulu, Kitgum and Pader districts (North Uganda)

From: HIV-1 prevalence and factors associated with infection in the conflict-affected region of North Uganda

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
N HIV-1 prevalence (95% CI) P-value Adjusted ORa (95% CI) P-value
Age group (1)    0.022   
   < 20 years 669 5.1 (3.5–7.0)   1  
   20–24 years 952 8.9 (7.2–10.9)   1.96 (1.29–2.97) 0.002
   25–29 years 700 8.9 (6.9–11.2)   2.01 (1.30–3.11) 0.002
   ≥ 30 years 730 8.2 (6.3–10.5)   1.91 (1.23–2.97) 0.004
Internally displaced (1)    < 0.001   
   Yes 2023 6.0 (5.0–7.2)   1  
   No 1028 11.6 (9.7–13.7)   1.55 (1.15–2.08) 0.004
Education (2)    0.142   
   Primary or lower 2534 7.6 (6.6–8.7)   1  
   Secondary or higher 484 9.7 (7.2–12.7)   0.95 (0.66–1.37) 0.791
Occupationb (3)    0.023   
   Traditional 2802 7.6 (6.6–8.6)   1  
   Modern 203 12.3 (8.1–17.6)   1.07 (0.67–1.71) 0.767
Marital status (4)    < 0.001   
   Married 1929 6.6 (5.5–7.8)   1  
   Not married 1072 10.4 (8.6–12.3)   1.47 (1.06–2.04) 0.021
Age of partner (4)    0.008   
   < 25 years 690 5.1 (3.6–7.0)   1  
   25–34 years 1479 8.5 (7.1–10.1)   1.35 (0.83–2.20) 0.226
   ≥ 35 years 826 9.0 (7.1–11.1)   1.56 (0.85–2.87) 0.151
Occupation of partnerb (4)    < 0.001   
   Traditional 1645 5.6 (4.5–6.8)   1  
   Modern 1251 10.8 (9.1–12.6)   1.62 (1.18–2.21) 0.003
Parity (5)    0.027   
   Primipara 778 5.9 (4.4–7.8)   1  
   Multipara 2254 8.5 (7.4–9.7)   1.29 (0.83–1.99) 0.255
  1. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; numbers in brackets near the variable names indicate the hierarchical level assigned to each factor in multivariate analysis (from 1 to 5).
  2. a OR adjusted for site of testing and all factors assigned to the same hierarchical level and those associated with HIV-1 infection at a P-level < 0.20 in the previous levels;b Traditional occupation: agricultural worker and housewife; modern occupation: clerk, business woman/man, professional, soldier, student and other.